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A Chronology of Digital Publication, Part II: Digital Journals in Writing Studies

A brief history of born-digital journals in writing studies.
A montage of logos from born-digital journals in writing studies.

— by Douglas Eyman

We have written quite a bit about digital journals in the field of writing studies (e.g., Ball, 2004; Ball, 2012; Ball, 2016; Ball, 2017; Ball & Eyman, 2015; Ball & Eyman, 2022; Eyman, 2019; Eyman & Ball, 2014; Eyman & Ball, 2015; Eyman & Ball, 2016), although a comprehensive history has yet to be compiled. We provide a precis of the field's publications here for three reasons: first, the field of Writing Studies was an early adopter of digital publication in general and born-digital work more specifically; second, more of those early journals are still publishing (the ratio of extant to defunct digital journals appears to be somewhat higher than that of other fields, but that may be a function of having started more digital journals well before other fields began to do so); and third, this history directly informs our own experiences as editors and thus the information and advice we present in this book.

As with Part I, we welcome any input about journals or projects that are absent from the list—although we've tried to be fairly comprehensive, the transient nature of many of these publications and the mists of time may obscure the full picture (we also noticed a bit of our own blindspot when it came to journals published outside the US, so if we've missed international venues, please do let us know!). The journals we list below are predominantly born digital: our criteria for inclusion favors journals that stand independently as online venues that ideally take advantage of the medium of the Web through links, nonlinear navigation, images, design, and embedded media (although many of the entries below publish in PDF format, replicating print genres and conventions—also see below for some early examples of print-to-digital transitions). Each of these journals also has a rich and robust history, but most of that history has yet to be recorded (although we did find one such accounting provided by Composition Studies.) For our purposes in this chronology, we only provide a brief overview. The majority of the journals listed here are (or were) open-access and all employ peer-review unless otherwise noted.

Where possible, we've noted the underlying infrastructure/publication platform for each journal. For currently publishing journals, the platform listed is the current one in use; for defunct journals we list the platform used in the final issue.


The Electronic Journal for Computer Writing, Rhetoric and Literature (1994–1997)

John Slatin at the University of Texas’s Computer Writing and Research Lab (CWRL) founded the journal in 1994. The editors originally planned to "gather papers presented at the First Annual Spring Colloquium of the Computer Writing and Research Lab in April 1994 and either email them to subscribers or put them on a Gopher server" but "decided instead to make CWRL a Web journal." The first issue introduction notes that the Association of Research Libraries had a list of 440 ejournals at that time, but there wasn't a clear distinction between individual journals (what we would call blogs now) and academic journals. This note appears to refer to the ARL's "Electronic Directory of eJournals, Newsletters, and Discussion Lists"; unfortunately, the archive of that directory only goes back to the 6th edition, released in October 1996. CWRL was succeeded by Currents in Electronic Literacy in 1999. Platform: Hand-Coded HTML

RhetNet: A Cyberjournal for Rhetoric and Writing (1994–1997)

Now archived at the WAC Clearinghouse, RhetNet describes itself as "a small-scale, collaborative, community-supported instance of Xanadu" (Ted Nelson's vision for a world-wide repository of digital publishing, which he started in 1960). "It's a mechanism for a community of teachers and scholars to exert some control over the gush of discourse it produces." Mick Doherty, founding editor of Kairos was a regular contributor, and it is clear that RhetNet served as a model for Kairos. Platform: Hand-Coded HTML

The Dangling Modifier (1994–2022)

This journal billed itself as "An International Newsletter by and for Peer Tutors in Writing and Produced in Association with the NCPTW." Although it appears to have ceased production in 2022, it has a unique navigation design for its archive of issues. Platform: Originally MS Word, Wordpress (Aaron theme)

Kairos (1996–present)

Kairos debuted January 1, 1996, presenting work that was intended to take advantage of the hypertextual, networked medium of the Internet (a guiding principle from the mission expressed in that first issue was that the work published in the journal would become ineffective or less valuable if one attempted to translate it into print). Kairos is considered to be the first electronic journal in writing studies that has continuously and exclusively published webtext content without interruption (Ball, 2016). Platform: Hand-Coded HTML

PRE/TEXT Electra(Lite) (1997–2000)

Founded in 1997 by co-editors Cynthia Haynes and Victor Vitanza, PRE/TEXT: Electra(Lite) was described as an "'ad hoc' electronic journal, a temporary surrogate for a more e-laborate, more e-playful, forthcoming electronic publication. This electronic version … is an X-tension of the print ('pulp') version of PRE/TEXT: A Journal of Rhetorical Theory." (See https://parlormultimedia.com/enculturation/5_1/vitanza.html for more on Vitanza's orientation to writing and his playful use of language). The journal published three issues, each embracing the idea of playfulness in design and in content. (Although the journal site lists four issues, 4.1 was never actually produced). One of the key challenges for early online journals was the lack of standards, which meant that many of them were designed for specific browsers and screen sizes. P/T Electra(Lite) (the shortened form of the title) noted that it was "formatted specifically for MAC Netscape 4.0+" and encouraged users to "Set the font size in your Netscape browser to 12pt or in MSIE to Large." The journal also provided audio and video elements, which in turn required plugins and players to run. Platform: Hand-Coded HTML

enculturation (1997–2000; 2002–present)

Another key online journal in writing studies that is still publishing, enculturation is devoted to contemporary theories of rhetoric, writing, and culture and encourages the submission of "short essays or media projects … for wider audiences … rhetorical scholarship that consists primarily of sound in the form of audio essays, collections of soundscapes, or richly edited audio-recorded interviews, and creative scholarly works in the liminal space between the article and the monograph." Enculturation's history declares that it was founded in 1996, but the first issue was released in 1997 and publication was briefly suspended between 2000 and 2002. Like Kairos, enculturation was founded by graduate students—in this case, Byron Hawk and David Rieder, who were then at the University of Texas at Arlington. And as is common for many online journals, enculturation moved around as the editors moved to new institutions or the journal's main caretakers changed over time. (As we double-checked this entry we discovered that the journal has a new digital home and is now supported by Parlor Press). Platform: Drupal

:// English Matters (1999–2006)

Faculty at George Mason University founded the journal in 1999, describing it as "a journal where language meets hypermedia" that invites "teachers and students of English who are questioning and creating new texts and pedagogies on the web to browse through, linger over, and contribute to this collection of essays, exhibits, and performances." Ten issues were produced, coded in NetObjects Fusion (relying heavily on frames for navigation). While the journal stopped publishing in 2006, the archives are still available. Platform: Microsoft Word Saved As HTML

Basic Writing eJournal (1999–present)

Founded by Linda Adler-Kassner and Gregory Glau in 1999, BWe described itself as a "new e-journal … intended to complement the already rich resources available to basic writing instructors and researchers: the Conference on Basic Writing home page, the CBW listserv, and of course, the Journal of Basic Writing." Originally housed at Arizona State University, the journal is currently based at the City College of New York and has been supported from its inception by the Council on Basic Writing. Platform: DreamWeaver Template

Computers & Composition Online (1996–2000; 2004–present)

C&C Online began as an archive and addendum to the print journal in 1996, but versions prior to 2003 are no longer accessible. As Jeremy Tirrell noted, the journal "began in 1996 as a shared project between Keith Comer at the University of Karlskrona in Sweden and Margaret Syverson at the University of Texas. However, this iteration of the journal shows little production until 1998 when the University of Texas became its sponsoring institution and the location of two of its five editors." The current instantiation began publishing fully multimodal digital scholarship in 2003, and the journal has been continually publishing since then under the editorship of Kris Blair. Platform: Hand-Coded HTML

Currents in Electronic Literacy (1999–2006; 2007–2013)

Published by the University of Texas's Digital Writing Research Lab, Currents in Electronic Literacy (aka "Currents: An E-Journal") succeeded Computer Writing, Rhetoric, and Literature (1994–1997) as the official e-journal of the Computer Writing and Research Lab. Currents focused on electronic literacy in a wide range of fields, from literary studies to rhet/comp to media studies. The journal noted that it was "especially interested in work that takes advantage of the hypertext possibilities afforded by our World Wide Web publication format, as well as in articles concerning the use of emergent electronic technologies." As with CWRL, John Slatin served as founding editor, continuing at least through 2005. There was a gap in production in 2006, after which the journal re-appeared with a new design. The final full issue was published in 2013, but there is also a 2014 entry by editor D. Diane Davis, announcing the intent to keep the journal archives available for the foreseeable future. She notes that "ultimately, this journal serves as an archive preserving not only the changing intellectual interests of those involved with Currents, but also the larger narrative of digital rhetoric." Platform: Drupal


Queen: A Journal of Rhetoric and Power (2000?–2006?)

Queen, "the electronic publishing arm of the Centre for Rhetorics and Hermeneutics" published mixed-genre works and photo essays with a focus on the rhetorical function of power. It claimed to have been "designed to become the leading electronic journal for the exchange of ideas from among a broad array of approaches, disciplines, ideologies and communicative media about topics and issues that have an impact upon audiences from both inside and outside of academia"; however the journal did not provide metadata (including year of publication) for any of its issues, which makes it difficult to determine when it started and when it ended. There was a CFP for the journal in 2009, but the last actual issue publication appears to be around 2006. Platform: Hand-Coded HTML

The Journal of Literacy and Technology (2000–present)

Founded by Jonathan Taylor, the Journal of Literacy and Technology aims to explore the complex relationship between literacy and technology in educational, public, workplace, and individual spheres. Issues produced prior to 2012 are not available on the journal's site but some can be recovered at archive.org. Platform: WordPress (twentyeleven theme)

Xchanges (2001–present)

The first five volumes of Xchanges were housed at Wayne State University, after which the journal migrated to New Mexico Tech. The journal's early issues (two per year) were produced in concert with the Y|X Youth Exchange conference held at Wayne State. The primary content of the journal is work produced by undergraduate and graduate students, some of whom also serve as journal editors. Founding editor-in-chief Julianne Newmark and webmaster Patrick Smith have directed the journal's publication from the first issue. Platform: B2evolution CMS

Poroi: An International Journal of Rhetorical Analysis and Invention (2001–present)

"Scholarly articles in Poroi emphasize the rhetoric of knowledge production in and across academic disciplines; how knowledge flows between technical, public, and personal spheres of discourse; and how communication media affect argumentation, its dissemination, and reception. Poroi is published semiannually." Platform: Janeway Publishing System

Academic.Writing: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Communication Across the Curriculum (2000–2003)

Started by Mike Palmquist as the journal of the WAC Clearinghouse, Academic.Writing used a rolling publication model, presenting works "as soon as they've been reviewed and prepared for the Web" but listing them in a single volume each year. The first issue demonstrated its commitment to its born-digital nature by "presenting an interlinked discussion of the future of writing across the curriculum by five leading members of the WAC community: Anne Herrington, Donna LeCourt, Susan McLeod, David Russell, and Art Young." In 2004, Academic.Writing merged into Across the Disciplines and shifted to a more standard article publication model. Platform: Hand-Coded HTML

Lore: An E-Journal for Teachers of Writing (2001–2004)

Supported by Bedford/St. Martin's Press, Lore served as both journal and community hub, describing itself as a "forum for sharing knowledge, building communities, and voicing concerns about what happens in the classroom...edited by assistant professors, adjuncts, and graduate students who have been teaching composition for a number of years and who care about composition as both a philosophical discipline and a lived experience." Because the journal was moved several times before being removed completely, very little of the archive is available via archive.org. Platform: HTML, unknown template

LORE (2001–2014)

It is unclear if this publication is related to the version produced by BSM (above); LORE appears to have been a blog with occasional journal articles published by the Rhetoric and Writing Studies Department at San Diego State University. Editors Chris Werry and Sim Barhoum explain that the journal publishes "short, informal pieces, as well as longer, more polished works" including "essays, research projects, discussions of teaching strategies and practices, creative writing, reviews of books, software, web sites, and interviews." Appears to have originally been produced as a print journal. Platform: Commons in a Box

English Teaching: Practice and Critique (2002–present)
https://edlinked.soe.waikato.ac.nz/journal/view.php (2002–2014)
https://www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/journal/etpc (2015–present)

Originally an open-access journal published by the University of Waikato, English Teaching founding editor Terry Locke described the scope of the journal as aiming to "promote theorising about English/literacy that is grounded in a range of contexts: classrooms, schools and wider educational constituencies." Emerald Publishing acquired the journal in 2015 (Volume 14 ff), shifting the journal to a closed-access subscription model. Platform: Hand-Coded HTML, PDF

Praxis: A Writing Center Journal (2003–present)

Started as a project of the Undergraduate Writing Center at University of Texas-Austin in 2003, and edited by students who worked in the center, Praxis became a peer-reviewed academic journal in 2011. As noted on the journal's site, Praxis "publishes articles from writing-center consultants, administrators, and others concerned with issues related to writing-center training, consulting, labor, administration, and initiatives." Platform: Squarespace

K.B. Journal (2004–present)

Founded in 2004 by editors Clarke Rountree and Mark Huglen, K.B. - The Journal of the Kenneth Burke Society aimed to "serve as a common meeting ground … keeping all of us abreast of the uses to which Burke is put forth in different fields, sharing bibliographies and insights, and enriching our ongoing conversations." Platform: Drupal

Meat: A Journal of Writing & Materiality (2005–2007)

"In the rush toward digital space, what often gets left behind is the "meat," the flesh, the working/breathing/paying-bills bodies that write." Founded by Jacqueline Rhodes and Jonathan Alexander, Meat is a refereed online journal focusing on the intersections of technologies of writing and materiality. Although the journal is listed in archive.org, the main interface was in Flash, and is thus no longer accessible. Platform: HTML/Flash

Orange Journal of Technical Communication and Information Design (2006–2015)

The Orange Journal (apparently named after an editor's cat) was a student journal that aimed to "foster critical thinking and discussion on a wide variety of topics and issues important to technical communicators." The founding editors were students from the University of Washington-Seattle, and both editors and editorial board were made up of graduate students in rhetoric and technical communication. The journal URLs moved over time, so it is very difficult to access later issues. Platform: Plone CMS

Harlot: A Revealing Look at the Arts of Persuasion (2008–2016)

Harlot aimed to publish work that was both academic and popular (or in a liminal space between the two), focusing on rhetoric in everyday life. It was founded by graduate students in the English department at The Ohio State University. Themed issues focused on craft rhetorics, digital activism, and sonic rhetorics. The editors explain the name of the journal: "Our choice of title began as a joking reference to traditional disparagement of rhetoric as 'the harlot of the arts' … then a little digging into the roots of the word revealed associations of the harlot with a gender-neutral trickster, a figure of the fringe celebrated (and reviled) for messing with comfortable norms and assumptions." Platform: Open Journal Systems (OJS)

Journal of Writing Research (2008–present)

JOWR is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes "scientific research exploring the mental and social processes underlying written production, how writing is learned, and how it can be effectively taught, across all ages and educational contexts." This journal is both multidisciplinary in scope and perhaps the most fully international journal in the field of writing studies. Platform: Open Journal Systems (OJS)

Programmatic Perspectives (2009–present)

The journal of the Council for Programs in Technical and Scientific Communication was born-digital in 2009 but published in PDF and followed print journal conventions. Founding editors Tracy Bridgeford, Karla Saari Kitalong, and Bill Willaimson did, however, link the journal to a companion blog (no longer available), intended to be a venue for conversations about the works published. Platform: WordPress (Beaver Builder theme)

Writing and Pedagogy (2009–present)

A UK-based journal published by Equinox Publishing, Writing and Pedagogy (WAP) describes its focus as "the nature of writing and its development across the lifespan...international in scope, spanning levels of education, and advancing the theory and practice of writing pedagogy in varying language environments." Unlike most of the journals on this list, WAP is not open access. Platform: Open Journal Systems (OJS)

2010s and beyond

Rhetoric, Professional Communication, and Globalization (2010–2017; 2022–present)

Focusing on global and international technical communication, this journal was founded by a team of scholars, led by founding editor Barry Thatcher. In the editor's introduction, a note of appreciation points out the value of the Open Journal System (OJS) created by the Public Knowledge Project as a critical feature supporting the infrastructure of this open access journal. After a five-year hiatus, the journal has been revived, now hosted at Purdue University. Platform: Open Journal Systems (OJS)

The Jump+: The Journal of Undergraduate Multimedia Projects (2010–present)

This journal, founded by graduate student Justin Hodgson, showcases student projects created in audio, video, and e-book multimedia platforms. Each project typically is published alongside at least one “critical” response from members of the journal's editorial collective, as well as student project reflections, instructor reflections, project timelines, and course and assignment descriptions. The journal originally allowed commenting on each project, but as they note, "spammers and a lack of community use led us to disable this feature with future issues." Platform: WordPress

Relevant Rhetoric: A New Journal of Rhetorical Studies (2010–2021)

Focusing on the publication of "academic rhetorical criticism of value not only to academic scholars and historians interested in persuasion, but also to the educated lay-public," Relevant Rhetoric ostensibly "encouraged authors to include linked photos, video clips, audio clips, web pages, or any other or any other digital media necessary for a thorough and understandable analysis," but published almost exlusively PDF files. Platform: HTML, PDF

Present Tense: A Journal of Rhetoric in Society (2010–present)

The goal of Present Tense has been to provide a venue for shorter length works that address contemporary and timely rhetorical issues. The journal does include some multimedia works and, as is common in the field, is an open-access journal. Platform: WordPress (ribbon-lite theme)

JAC Online (2011–2014)

Not, strictly speaking, a digital journal, JAC Online offered access to a digital archive of articles from the print journal (JAC: A Journal of Rhetoric, Culture, and Politics), along with digitized audio versions of interviews published in the journal. We include it here as an early attempt to fully digitize an independent print journal. Although the print journal ceased production in 2014, JAC Online continued to be available until late 2020. Platform: Hand-Coded HTML

Journal of Academic Writing (2011–present)

The journal of the European Association for the Teaching of Academic Writing (EATAW), Journal of Academic Writing is an international peer-reviewed journal that focuses on the teaching, tutoring, researching, administration and development of academic writing in the European higher education context. Platform: Open Journal Systems (OJS)

Technoculture: An Online Journal of Technology in Society (2011–present)

Founded by Keith Dorwick and Kevin Moberly, Technoculture publishes both critical-cultural and creative works that explore how and why technology impacts society. Starting in 2012, the journal moved to a continuous publication model, publicizing new works via RSS feed. Platform: WordPress (Sinatra theme)

CCC Online Version 2 (2012)

NCTE attempted to recreate CCC Online (without reference to version 1) in 2011. Bump Halbritter served as the main editor for the new iteration of the journal. The first (and only) issue of CCC Online version 2 (issue 1.1), was a special issue focused on "The Turn to Performance," guest-edited by Jenn Fishman. The issue included a wide range of media, from more traditional text to cinematic approaches to interactivity and operated as a fully born-digital journal that did not serve as an extension of the print journal. Unfortunately, because the issue was never moved to an NCTE server (or other sustainable location), these works are no longer available. (See the "Print → Digital" section for the version 1 entry.) Platform: Multiple.


Teaching/Writing: The Journal of Writing Teacher Education (2012–present)

Founded by co-editors Jonathan Bush and Erinn Bentley, Teaching/Writing is "dedicated to the discussion, advancement, and research of the teaching and support of writing teachers." Platform: Open Journal Systems (OJS)

Journal of Interactive Technology and Pedagogy (JITP; 2012–present)

JITP has a broader remit than other journals on this list, "promoting open scholarly discourse around critical and creative uses of technology in teaching, learning, and research," but has several prominent writing studies scholars in its editorial collective and publishes some work that connects to the field. A history of the journal's development is available here: https://ideah.pubpub.org/pub/d9ztnjgm/release/1. Platform: originally WordPress; migrated to Manifold in late 2023.

connexions: International Professional Communication Journal (2013–2018)

The journal provided a forum for researchers, practitioners, students, and leaders of international and intercultural professional communication. Of particular interest is it's extensive archive of video interviews (with transcripts) of leaders in industry and of researchers in academia. Platform: WordPress

Literacy in Composition Studies (LiCS; 2013–present)

LiCS publishes long-form scholarly articles and short-form pieces including book reviews, interviews, symposium essays, and work in new and emerging genres that speak to the intersections of literacy studies and composition. This journal runs on the OJS platform. Platform: Open Journal Systems (OJS)

Double Helix: A Journal of Critical Thinking and Writing (2013–present)

A publication of Quinnipiac University, Double Helix was founded in 2013 by Robert Smart. The journal gets its title from The Making of Meaning, in which Ann Berthoff muses on the structure of the DNA molecule as a model for the composing process. The journal aims to connect critical and creative thinking with the work of WAC and WID. Platform: HTML/Clearinghouse Bootstrap/PDF

Crosspol: A Journal of Transitions for HS and College Writing Teachers (2014–2018)

Andrew Hollinger and Colin Charleton founded the journal in 2014 as a means of connecting high school and college writing instructors. The journal published one issue every two years, and appears to have ceased production afer issue 3. Platform: WiX

Journal of Response to Writing (2015–present)

The Journal of Response to Writing originally published articles on a rolling basis but appears to have moved to a volume/issue organization some time after the first issue. Founded in 2015 by Dana Ferris, Norm Evans, James Hartshorn, and Grant Eckstein, the journal is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal dedicated to refining response practices for better writing. Platform: BePress

Prompt: A Journal of Academic Writing Assignments (2017–present)

Prompt is a biannual, refereed online journal that publishes academic writing assignments accompanied by reflective essays. These assignments can be targeted toward both undergraduate and graduate students from all academic disciplines. In 2023, Prompt became affiliated withthe WAC Clearinghouse, which publishes or has published several of the digital journals on this list. Platform: Open Journal Systems (OJS)

Journal of Multimodal Rhetorics (JOMR; 2017–present)

Designed to publish multimedia-rich born digital texts, JOMR founding editors Christina V. Cedillo and M. Melissa Elston define multimodality as "all those material, spatial, embodied, aesthetic, and procedural strategies that communication engages, but especially those employed by marginalized individuals and groups with limited access to legitimized modes deemed 'speech'.” JOMR is an open-access journal. Platform: Asterion CMS

The Journal of Writing Analytics (2017–present)

Created by an interdisciplinary editorial team, the journal focuses on writing analytics, "broadly defined as the study of writing processes and written texts through the use of a wide range of analytical tools, including those drawn from writing studies, corpus linguistics, cognitive psychology, and learning analytics." Originally using Open Journal Systems for publication, the journal appears to now be using the systems provided by the WAC Clearinghouse; it has also transitioned from an annual publication (through 2022) to publishing on a rolling basis. Platform: HTML, PDF.

RHM: Rhetoric of Health and Medicine (2017–present)

Unlike the majority of journals in this list, RHM is not an open-access publication, although some componenets of each issue are are available. In addition to print genre research articles, RHM also publishes "Dialogues" and video interviews (usually available as OA works). Platform: Open Journal Systems (OJS)

constellations: a cultural rhetorics publishing space (2018–present)

Founding Editors Malea Powell and Alexandra Hildalgo describe constellations as a publishing space for cultural rhetorics that needed to be "both flexible and elastic enough to accept a broad range of genres and forms–from the most basic text-based to the most richly multi-mediated." The journal publishes on a rolling basis, organizing volumes by year. Platform: WordPress (Divi theme)

Latinx Writing and Rhetoric Studies (2020)

The journal of the CCCC Latinx Caucus, Latinx Writing and Rhetoric Studies was started by founding editor Iris Ruiz. At present there is only one issue, guest edited by Isabel Baca and Yndalecio Isaac Hinojosa. Platform: WordPress

The Journal of Peer Tutoring in Secondary Schools (JPTSS; 2021–present)

Founded by Amber Jensen and sponsored by the Secondary School Writing Centers Association (SSWCA), JPTSS seeks to publish thought-provoking pieces that explore questions related to secondary school peer tutoring; the journal's goals also include "celebrating student and professional voices and contributing to the field of writing center theory and practice through scholarly discourse." Platform: WordPress (Rara Academic Pro theme), PDF.

Technical Communication and Social Justice (TCSJ 2023–present)

Founded by editors Jerry Savage and Lucia Dura, this journal is the newest in the field. As the editors note, social justice has been a growing topic in the field of technical communications, but "TCSJ is the only journal exclusively committed to that concern." Platform: Open Journal Systems (OJS)

Early Examples: Print → Digital

The following journals began as print publications but were early adopters in the transition to digital (in these cases, digital-only) publication. We've included them here because while they weren't born digital, they did take advantage of—and embrace—the Web as a new space for academic publication.

CCC Online Version 1 (1998–2003)

Developed by Todd Taylor, the first iteration of CCC Online was primarily a companion site to the print journal, offering online access to abstracts (and later full text) of works published in College Composition and Communication. The site was quite innovative for its time, offering a continuously published book forum, an archive of supplementary digital materials for print articles, and a "CCC Interactive" section to support "dialogue between published texts, contributing authors, and CCC’s readers." The site did also publish occasional stand-alone webtexts, so it did include some born-digital elements. Readers could choose between a Flash-based graphical interface, a frames-based interface, or a plain HTML interface. Publisher NCTE decommissioned the site some time after issue 54.5 (June 2003), electing to not archive or preserve any of the original publications. Platform: Hand-Coded HTML.

The Writing Instructor (digital from 2001)

Currenlty identifying itself as "a networked journal and digital community for writers and teachers of writing," this journal began as a print publication in 1981 before transitioning into an exclusively online format in 2001. Platform: Drupal

Across the Disciplines (digital from 2004)

In 2004, Academic.Writing: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Communication Across the Curriculum and the print journal Language and Learning Across the Disciplines merged to form Across the Disciplines (AtD). While open-access and peer-reviewed, AtD does not publish webtexts or digital scholarship, instead producing articles (first only in HTML format when it was Academic.Writing, but later transitioning to PDF-only after the merger). Platform: HTML/Clearinghouse Bootstrap/PDF

Composition Forum (digital from 2005)

The journal of the Association of Teachers of Advanced Composition, Compostion Forum transitioned to a digital format starting with issue 14.2, undertaken by then newly appointed editor Christian Weisser, with assistance from Bradley Dilger. Platform: WordPress (Simplish theme)

Peitho (digital from 2009)

Like The Writing Instructor, Peitho began as a print newsletter in 1996; when it matured into a journal, editor Barbara L'Eplattenier decided to produce it in a PDF format and distribute it on the web and then in 2015 incorporated a peer-review process (making issue 15.1 the first issue that was both online and peer-reviewed). Peitho is the journal of the Coalition of Feminist Scholars in the History of Rhetoric and Composition, publishing "original research in the history of rhetoric and composition, including its sister disciplines of communication and gender studies." The current version provides both HTML and PDF versions of articles. Platform: WordPress (enfold theme)

Open Words: Access and English Studies (digital and OA from 2019)

"Since 2007, Open Words has been dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed articles focusing on political, professional, and pedagogical issues related to teaching composition, rhetoric, reading, creative writing, ESL, and literature to open-admissions and 'nonmainstream' student populations." Platform: HTML, PDF

CCC Online Archive (2008–2012)

Designed by Collin Brooke and Derek Mueller, the Archive served as another attempt to provide an online supplement to the College Composition and Communication. Like the version 1 of CCC Online, it provided an additional point of access to the content of the journal, search options and journal metadata. It did not offer new content, additional interactivity, or publish webtexts. Originally hosted at Syracuse University, the site was moved to NCTE servers in 2011. It is unclear how long it lasted after that point, but as of this writing none of the original site's functionality is available, and it seems to have been retired at the point when CCC Online version 2 came out. (Since the Archive is not a journal, but is part of the CCC Online story, we've included it here out of chronological order.) Platform: Database-driven HTML output.

Being Thorough:
Print Journals in Writing Studies

As nearly all journals are now available digitally, we thought we should add a brief appendix of major print-origin journals in writing studies. Most of these are available via institutional or personal subscription, and, unless otherwise noted, are still publishing regularly. At this point, most of these journals also offer some open-access articles each issue; some have transitioned to fully OA, as noted below. For a nearly comprehensive list of journals in the field, see the Scholarly Journals page at the WAC Clearinghouse. As we updated this post, we found an earlier list of discplinary journals in "Rhetoric and Composition: A Brief History of the Field" by Louise Wheatherbee Phelps.

Assessing Writing
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly
(formerly Business Communication Quarterly)
College Composition and Communication
College English
Community Literacy Journal
(transitioned to online/OA 2021)
Composition Studies (partial OA)
Dialogue: A Journal for Writing Specialists (1993–2000?)
IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication
International Journal of Business Communication
Issues in Writing (1998–2010)
Journal for the History of Rhetoric/Advances in the History of Rhetoric
Journal of Advanced Composition (renamed JAC: A Journal of Rhetoric, Culture, and Politics (1980–2014; partially online from 1995)
Journal of Basic Writing (OA)
Journal of Business and Technical Communication
Journal of English for Academic Purposes
Journal of Second Language Writing
Journal of Teaching Writing
(transitioned to online/OA 2020)
Journal of Technical Writing and Communication
Philosophy and Rhetoric
Quarterly Journal of Speech
(Some OA articles)
Reflections: A Journal of Community-Engaged Writing and Rhetoric
Rhetoric Review
(Some OA articles)
Rhetoric Society Quarterly
Rhetorica: A Journal of the History of Rhetoric
Research in the Teaching of English
Teaching English in the Two Year College
Technical Communication
Technical Communication Quarterly
Text and Talk
(started as TEXT, 1981)
WLN: A Journal of Writing Center Scholarship
WOE: Writing on the Edge
WPA: Writing Program Administration
Writing Across the Curriculum Newsletter(1983–1988)
Writing Center Journal
(fully OA, 2022)
Written Communication
Young Scholars in Writing


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